Mainland Southeast Asia
Males have white upperparts and tail, with some black barring in a zebra-like pattern, while their underparts and crest are shiny bluish-black. Males also have a red patch of skin on their face called a wattle and a spur on each leg. The females are all brown with hints of barring on their tails, which are much shorter than the males’.
This bird is primarily terrestrial and rarely flies. Females have camouflaged coloration to help conceal themselves from predators, while males display bright colors. The vibrant red colors can indicate good health to females. Carotenoids are used to stimulate and regulate the immune system in birds and mammals, so an abundance of carotenoids that results in bright red colors suggests either excellent nutrition or absence of diseases.
Courtship begins with males opening their wings and vibrating them while producing a "crak-crak-crak" sound. The female responds with a similar display, excluding the vocalization. The male also inflates his facial wattles. Males are polygamous and territorial. Females scrape shallow nests in the ground, and their clutch typically contains 6-12 light brown eggs. Females incubate the eggs while males defend the territory. Incubation lasts for 25 days. The young are precocial, capable of foraging on their own but still requiring protection and guidance from the parents for a brief period.
These birds scratch the ground to find food, primarily consuming seeds and fruit, with occasional inclusion of insects.